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Using 2,000 data points on national debt and economic growth in 20 advanced economies (such as the United States, France, and Japan) from 1800–2009, the authors found that countries with national debts above 90% of GDP averaged 34% less real annual economic growth than when their debts were below 90% of GDP. * In 2013, the Political Economy Research Institute at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, published a working paper about the economic consequences of government debt.
Using data on national debt and economic growth in 20 advanced economies from 1946–2009, the authors found that countries with national debts over 90% of GDP averaged: * The authors of the above-cited papers have engaged in a heated dispute about the results of their respective papers and the effects of government debt on economic growth.
It is not possible to produce a reliable quantitative estimate of the aggregate portion of the raw gender wage gap for which the explanatory factors that have been identified account. The rates for other groups were as follows: * Unpaid work—such as caring for children, cooking, and cleaning—increases standards of living, but it is often not recorded in standard economic measures.  Per an academic book published by Stanford University Press: The impact of declining levels of unpaid work over time on all aspects of household living standards deserves more careful consideration.
It does not include goods and services received via Medicaid, Medicare, or employer-provided health insurance, except for co-pays and out-of-pocket expenses.    * The Department of Labor explains that consumers can temporarily spend more than their income by borrowing or “drawing down savings and investments.” Thus, some people in the lowest income group “have expenditures that are more typical of upper-income consumers.” * Between 19, the average inflation-adjusted consumer expenditures of the bottom 20% of households increased by ,326.
This gain closed the 1989 gap between the bottom 20% and the next income group by 47%.
Many of these benefits are “legally required” by government, such as Social Security and Medicare. * In the 2000s, three employees brought a class action lawsuit against IBM for withholding overtime pay from workers that IBM considered to be exempt from the regulations.
The company settled the lawsuit for million.  * In 2015, the U. Department of Labor, then under the leadership of Barack Obama, issued a regulation to make overtime pay mandatory for workers earning less than ,476/year.
But they still make 77 cents for every dollar a man earns. A woman deserves equal pay for equal work.  [A]fter we controlled for all the factors included in our analysis that we found to affect earnings, college-educated women working full time earned an unexplained 7 percent less than their male peers did one year out of college.